Seizure disorder (otherwise known as epilepsy) is a neurological condition characterized by seizures, muscle contractions, and variable loss of consciousness. A seizure is the sudden disruption of the brain’s normal electrical activity, often accompanied by other neurological and behavioral symptoms. It is understood that epilepsy is the result of abnormal nerve discharges in the brain.
There are over forty classifications of seizure disorders; each has its own combination of seizure type and age of onset. Generally, seizure types are classified by whether or not the source of the neurological dysfunction is localized (causing partial or focal seizures) or distributed (leading to generalized seizures). These categories are further divided into subgroups depending on the extent to which consciousness is affected, or according the effect on the body.